Elevator Recall Programming for Fire Alarm
Programming and designing elevator recall for fire alarm systems is a fairly simple process if you are familiar with the codes and standards in place. Most fire alarm programmers and contractors understand the principle behind capturing passenger elevators but for those of you that don't, check this out!
Elevators are required by code to be connected and controlled by a Building Fire Alarm System (NFPA 72 2013 22.214.171.124.1) or an Elevator Recall System which falls under the NFPA 72 classification of Dedicated Function Fire Alarm System (NFPA 72 2013 126.96.36.199.2).
As required by NFPA 72 2013 21.3.5*, the spot type smoke detectors for the use of capturing the passenger elevator shall be mounted within 21' centerline of the elevator door. In addition to these detectors, you will have smoke detector(s) in the elevator equipment room and at the top or bottom of the elevator shaft. Keep in mind that smoke detection in the elevator shaft is only required if the elevator hoistway has automatic sprinklers. Automatic sprinklers are only found in the elevator hoistway if the elevator is constructed of combustible material. All of these spot type smoke detectors will be associated with your building fire alarm systems elevator recall functions.
Regarding the elevator and the building fire alarm system relationship, we have additional functions that require the installation of thermal spot type heat detectors. You will need these thermal spot type heat detectors in the elevator equipment room and elevator shaft (only if automatic sprinklers are present). Note these heat detectors do not recall or capture the elevators. These thermal heat detectors shunt the power to the elevator controller in the event of a fire. Remember the thermal spot type detectors used for shunt trip are required to be set or programmed to a lower temperature point then the surrounding automatic sprinkler heads. The reason for this is simple. We want the fire alarm system to sense the fire before the automatic sprinkler heads. We want the fire alarm control unit (FACU) to disconnect the power to the elevator prior to the sprinkler head applying water to its electronics. You can read more about fire alarm system elevator shunt trip in the following article: elevator shunt trip.
Elevator recall breaks down like this.
NFPA 72 2013 188.8.131.52. All smoke detectors associated with elevator recall that are not installed on the primary floor of egress including the top of the elevator shaft will activate the designated or primary elevator recall relay. This function will send the passenger elevator the the main level (typically lobby floor or level #1 depending on building layout).
NFPA 72 2013 184.108.40.206. All smoke detectors associated with elevator recall that are installed on the main level of egress will activate the secondary elevator recall relay. This function will send the passenger elevator to the alternate floor of egress (typically the basement or 2nd floor depending on the building layout).
The floor or level where the elevator equipment room is located will determine the recall relay to be activated in the event of an activated smoke detector. Example: If the elevator equipment room is located on the first floor, its associated smoke will activate the alternate recall relay. If the elevator equipment room is located on the roof, its associated smoke detector will activate the primary or designated recall relay.
The heat detectors in the elevator equipment room and elevator shaft will activate the shunt trip relay killing power to the controller. On top of this the heat detectors shall shut off any back-up power to the elevator. Per NFPA 72 2013 section 220.127.116.11* The elevator hoistway and equipment room smoke detectors and or heat detectors shall activate a visual warning commonly known as the flashing fireman's cap light near the elevator call buttons. This allows the fire department to become aware if there is a fire in the hoistway or elevator equipment room.
Now programming all of this might seem difficult but it is actually really simple. Find out how to program your fire alarm system with elevator recall.
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